Worthen Industries Supports Footwear Industry Through Special Adhesives

As reported by Medium in their article “Types of Glues Used in Footwear Industry,” adhesives are a vital component of the footwear industry.

“The footwear industry is a well-known industry which has served years in styling up your feet. Whether it is a sandal or shoes, all needs to be perfectly crafted…,” Medium said.

Click here to learn more about Worthen’s Footwear capabilities or here to read the full article.

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Worthen Industries Utilizes Paper Converting to Create Top of the Line Paper Products

As explained by About Mechanics in their article “What is Paper Converting?,” paper converting is used to create a variety of paper products such as envelopes, boxes, and paper bags and requires many different techniques.

“Operations involved in paper converting may include treating, slitting, sheeting, grooving, punching, and folding. Some operations may also call for perforating, blocking, binding, gluing, and laminating as well,” About Mechanics said.

Click here to learn more about Worthen’s Paper Coating Adhesive capabilities or here to read the full article.

Article with all rights reserved, courtesy of About Mechanics ——– https://www.aboutmechanics.com/

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Worthen Industries Helps to Further Education of Hot Melt Adhesives

As reported by IQS Directory in their article “Hot Melt Adhesives,” these adhesives, also called glue adhesives, are used for a vast variety of applications.

“Due to their flexibility, ease of application, and low melting points as compared to other adhesive types, hot melt adhesives are appropriate and suitable for many different substrates or materials,” IQS Directory said.

Click here to learn more about Worthen’s Adhesive capabilities or here to read the full article.

Article with all rights reserved, courtesy of IQS Directory ——– https://www.iqsdirectory.com/

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Worthen Industries Supports the Growing Packaged Food Market’s Use of Laminating Adhesives

As reported by Knowledge Sourcing in their article “Growing Packaged Food Market to Fuel the Laminating Adhesives Market,” as demand for more flexible packaging emerges across many different markets, laminating adhesives are also seeing a rise in demand.

“Increased production and sales of packaged foods, automobiles, medical gadgets, electronic components, and other items in both developed and developing nations have helped in the growth of the global laminating adhesives market,” Knowledge Sourcing said.

Click here to learn more about Worthen’s Film Laminating Adhesive capabilities or here to read the full article.

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Worthen Industries Promotes Education on Different Types of Adhesives for Shoe Making

As told by Shoe Gazing in their article “In depth – Different types of adhesives,” there is no one size fits all approach to the adhesives used in traditional shoe making.

“It’s easy to think that you use more or less the same type of adhesive for all types of shoes and purposes, but this is not the case. There are three main types of glues or adhesives, and it differs a lot between them in terms of both the use and the results with different advantages and disadvantages,” Shoe Gazing said.

Click here to learn more about Worthen’s Footwear capabilities or here to read the full article.

Article with all rights reserved, courtesy of Shoe Gazing ——– https://shoegazing.com/Photo with all rights reserved, courtesy of Canva ——– https://www.canva.com/

Worthen Industries Understands the Challenge of Foam Adhesives

As reported by Reliable Plant in their article “Adhesives: The challenge of making foam stick,” solving the issue of an adhesive on foam can be quite challenging.

“Many factors must be considered when engineering an adhesive systems, including the chemical composition and mechanical properties of the foam(s) and all other substrates that will be bonded – which could be anything from glass, plastic, metal or painted surfaces to human skin. Of course, the adhesive system must be designed to meet the particular performance requirements and environmental conditions of the end-use application,” Reliable Plant said.

Click here to learn more about Worthen’s Foam Fabricating Adhesive capabilities or here to read the full article.

Article with all rights reserved, courtesy of Reliable Plant ——– https://www.reliableplant.com/Photo with all rights reserved, courtesy of Canva ——– https://www.canva.com/

Assembling EV Motors With Adhesive

According to Assembly Mag:

Electric motors in cars are omnipresent, but they are also well hidden. In today’s late model vehicles, more than 30 motors are typically used to power a variety of applications, including ABS pumps, central locking systems, exterior mirrors, seat adjusters, window regulators and windshield wipers.

However, from a technical point of view, the most exciting aspect of electric motors are the ones used for the drivetrain in mild hybrids, full hybrids, plug-ins and purely electric cars. Even hydrogen-powered heavy-duty trucks need electric traction motors.

Electric motors are typically assembled with adhesives, because they provide impact resistance. Bonding also provides vibration-damping characteristics for noise reduction.

Externally excited synchronous motors have windings in the stator and rotor that are energized. The power density of these devices tends to be lower than that of other motor designs, while wear tends to be higher due to the use of carbon brushes. Electric vehicles with these motors, like the BMW iX3, do not require magnets.

Induction motors, another important AC drive, tend to have a lower power density and operate without magnets. These types of motors are found in the Audi e-tron and the Tesla Model S, Model Y and Model 3.

Permanent magnet motors have the highest power density. This applies especially to motors equipped with internal permanent magnets (IPM), which are found in EVs such as the Porsche Taycan. The magnets offer strong performance. However, because of the natural monopolies that surround the mining and sale of rare-earth magnets, they tend to be expensive and can be difficult to source.

Better Joining With Adhesives
As different as each of these concepts are, they share something in common: EV motors are becoming smaller and more powerful, while their efficiency continues to improve. To achieve performance goals, engineers must consider many things, including lamination design, an optimal embedding of the magnets into the lamination stack, and leaving the smallest gap possible between the magnet and coil.

Each of these things increases assembly challenges. Adhesive bonding is a great joining option, because it plays a different role depending on the motor concept. Bonding is especially important when fixing the magnets of IPMs.

For example, a progressive reduction in motor size leads to tightened manufacturing tolerances, which drives up costs. In addition, rare-earth magnets are susceptible to corrosion, which is why they receive a passivation, nickel or epoxy resin coating. It is critical that the coating not be damaged during mounting.

This coating protects the magnets from exposure to environmental influences. Other established methods of joining, such as mechanical clamping of magnets, are reaching their limits in terms of motor function and production process. Adhesive bonding, on the other hand, meets all these requirements.

Bonding is also advantageous for other motor concepts beyond joining magnets and lamination stacks. It can be used to join the shaft and rotor or the stator and housing. Adhesives can prevent fretting or contact corrosion. They are also impact-resistant, which is essential for the high dynamic forces in electric motors.

The vibration-damping characteristics of adhesives helps reduce noise and provides acoustic improvement. Their homogeneous stress distribution helps compensate for thermal stress that may be generated due to different coefficients of thermal expansion between the stator and housing.

Gap-filling properties help prevent slippage and play in the area surrounding the shaft. Often, bonding allows for lower manufacturing costs, since a high level of automation can be used.

Apart from these assembly applications, adhesives are also used for casting sensitive components in electric motors to protect them from humidity, aggressive media and mechanical stress.

Selecting the Appropriate Adhesive
Automotive engineers can choose from a wide variety of adhesive families. Given their different sizes and power densities, as well as the different environmental influences that e-motors are exposed to in the drivetrain, there is no blueprint for a universally valid design for an adhesive any more than there is for a standard production process.

Nevertheless, it is helpful to first take a look at the larger groups of adhesives together with their individual strengths and weaknesses. Then, tests should be performed on individual products, with the specific component.

In general, acrylates and polyurethanes are not suitable for most electric motors because of their moderate reliability. Anaerobic-curing metal adhesives, although used in industrial motors, are not ideal for extremely powerful electric motors for the drivetrain either. This leaves two main product groups: one-component and two-component epoxy resins.

One-Component Epoxies
One-component heat-curing epoxies feature excellent properties. They achieve good bond strength values at temperatures as high as 220 C. They are not only able to withstand peak temperatures temporarily, but they can also be used permanently at high temperatures for motors above insulation class H.

One-component heat-curing epoxy resins also exhibit high chemical resistance, good gap-filling capacity and good adhesion to nickel-plated surfaces, which is important for magnet bonding.

Heat curing with one-component epoxy is a process that takes between 20 and 40 minutes for most adhesives at typical temperatures. But, there are also newer products, including those for demanding environmental conditions that require only 10 minutes at 150 C for curing.

Induction curing is often an option for medium-sized motors or for high volumes, reducing process times by up to 90 percent and enabling accelerated curing in just one minute. In this process, the adhesives achieve the same high strength as what is achieved through standard heat curing.

Metal workpieces, which are partially or completely exposed to an electromagnetic alternating field by means of a current-carrying coil, are the precondition for induction curing. This field generates eddy currents within the material, flowing opposite of the original current and heating the material.

Induction allows very fast heating of electrically conductive components, while reducing the heating time. Energy costs for induction curing is significantly lower than those of convection ovens.

Two-Component Epoxies
For economic reasons, the larger the components are, the more manufacturers tend to choose two-component epoxies. These products are not only good for gap bridging, but they also offer excellent peel strength, equalization of tensions and good chemical resistance. In addition, they can be shipped and stored at room temperature.

Two-component epoxies cure at room temperature. The time lapse before reaching initial strength is deemed a major disadvantage for working with high-volume applications. However, two-component epoxies can be cured with heat, which accelerates the process. At a temperature of 80 C, for example, 10 minutes is sufficient to achieve adequate handling strength.

Sixty minutes gets the product to full curing. With induction curing at 100 C, the components can be fixed within one minute. After this time, a strength of 10 megapascals (MPa) is already achieved. The adhesive then achieves its full final strength at room temperature.

Depending on the adhesive, this process can take another few hours. But, this is irrelevant because the components can be processed immediately once handling strength has been achieved.

Compared to curing at higher temperatures, as is done for one-component products, these moderate conditions reduce the time needed for heating the components, leading to a lower energy demand in production.

Products for Potting Applications
In most potting applications in the EV drivetrain, which are intended to protect windings, among other things, there are often only moderate requirements. Because large quantities are needed, low-priced products are offered. For requirements beyond this, there are basically two options.

On one hand, there are dual-curing adhesives that are light-fixed and reach full strength under the influence of air, humidity or heat. They ensure fast processing while curing takes place reliably and simultaneously in shadowed areas.

For applications with extremely high requirements, there are reliable products that provide excellent resistance to aggressive media, like gear oil, or high thermal resistance with low thermal expansion. These products are available in one- and two-component variants for smaller and larger volumes, respectively. Due to their special composition, some of the products offer a coefficient of thermal expansion of up to 20 ppm/K, which is adapted to copper.

Higher Operating Temperatures
The maximum operating temperature of many electric motors is 180 C, because powerful rare-earth magnets will demagnetize at higher temperatures. That is why high-temperature resistant adhesives are in demand for use with EV motors and power electronics.

It is important to remember that adhesives are essentially plastics. With many adhesives, temperatures of 150 C or more can lead to a change in the polymer structures and a drop in performance. Often, elasticity increases above this temperature range, which is not desirable.

In recent years, the adhesives industry has been developing products that offer up to three times the strength at high temperatures than that of previous generations. For example, there are not only products that achieve strengths of up to 20 MPa on aluminum at 150 C, but also adhesives that are completely optimized for high dynamic loads in electric motors and for bonding magnets.

They achieve compression shear strengths of 20 MPa even on magnetic material (NdFeB) and at temperatures of 80 C (20 MPa corresponds to a force of 1,300 pounds on the surface of a penny).

The compounds are so thermally stable over the long term that these values can still be achieved after 10,000 hours of storage at 180 C and can be used in applications that require resistance at higher temperatures up to 220 C. This is possible through increased glass transition temperatures (Tg), which can be as high as 180 C.

As a result, the Young’s modulus does not change significantly under Tg. The adhesive achieves a very high temperature stability and only increases in flexibility above this temperature.

Light Fixation Simplifies Production
The greater the mechanical loads, the more likely it is that one-component epoxy adhesives will be used. However, for a long time, such products were only available in purely heat-curing form. As a result, fixing devices are frequently used to hold components in position during oven curing.

Today, there are adhesives with two-stage light and heat curing that simplify this process while combining high strength with very good temperature resistance. They are prefixed in about 10 seconds, depending on the chemical composition and the UV light intensity. This eliminates the need for retainers during assembly, disassembly and cleaning. In the case of electric motors, this allows buried magnets to be fixed in the rotor package without any mounting devices.

With the subsequent heat curing step required, which usually takes 20 minutes at 130 C, epoxies are able to achieve their full strength. The final strength is impressive. For aluminum, it is 60 MPa, which corresponds to a force of 3,900 pounds on the surface of a penny.

Light-fixable adhesives also exhibit high thermal and chemical resistance. In typical long-term tests of 500 hours of storage at 85 C and 85 percent relative humidity, they are able to achieve more than 75 percent of their original strength. The same holds true after 1,000 hours of storage at 200 C.

As far as temperature stability (the strength directly under the influence of temperature and not only after storage), the adhesives show very good values, but fall below the highly specialized high-temperature products. However, strengths of up to 10 MPa can also be achieved with some new light-fixable products.

Revolutionary Two-Component Adhesives
For two-component epoxies, the lengthy amount of time required to achieve initial strength was traditionally considered a disadvantage for many high-volume assembly applications. But, there are now hybrid chemistries that can be used to shorten this time a great deal and simplify production processes and logistics.

This can be achieved when light fixation is integrated into the bonding process with two-component products. Reliable final curing, including shadowed areas, is the same as for regular two-component products at room temperature. Alternatively, it can be accelerated with heat within 60 minutes at 80 C.

The first option is likely more attractive to most manufacturers, because there is an overall reduction in cycle times and throughput times, as well as energy costs for heat curing. The need for floor space is also radically reduced. Since dispensing, joining and light fixation take less than a minute, the next production step can begin much faster than the usual 15 to 90 minutes.

The light fixation strength of the products available so far is lower than that of the light-fixable one-component products. However, the components are so strongly protected against slipping after just a few seconds of irradiation that processing of the entire assembly can continue immediately.

In addition, new technology simplifies logistics because products don’t need to be transported and stored in a cooled state. A storage life of 12 months enhances production flexibility and enables the use of larger, more cost-effective containers.

These products are suitable for use in many applications, because they achieve a tensile shear strength of 28 MPa on aluminum. During the aging simulations required in the automotive industry, this value is maintained after 500 hours of storage at 85 C and 85 percent relative air humidity.

These new developments still have to prove themselves somewhat in practice, but they have great potential. This is because they combine the advantages of light curing with the strengths of two-component products. All users need is a mixing system and lamps. Ovens, energy and space on the shop floor can be saved, not to mention a great deal of time.

Additional Adhesive Properties
To increase EV traction motor performance with the same size dimensions, manufacturers are demanding electrical insulation as another property of the adhesive. This helps minimize eddy currents in electric motors, reducing heat generation and increasing performance.

In addition to high temperature resistance and electrical insulation, good thermal conductivity is also required in some cases. In some motors, heat is dissipated from the windings. Products suitable for this purpose have a thermal conductivity of about 1.5 watts per meter-Kelvin (W/mK) and an adjusted coefficient of thermal expansion in the range of 25 ppm/K.

Adhesives are sometimes equipped with integrated spacers. These spacers ensure a uniform and very thin bonding gap of 50 microns for segmented magnet stacking. This allows the use of more magnetic material and also contributes to motor efficiency.

Original Source

Using Adhesives in the Design and Development of Medical Devices

According to Engineering.com:

Reusable medical devices pose some unique challenges for design engineers, particularly when it comes to the proper selection of materials, adhesives, sealants, coatings and encapsulants.

Surgical instruments, implantable devices, catheters, endoscopes and ultrasound probes are just some of the medical devices that require adhesives, each requiring their own specific material, adhesive, sealant, coating and encapsulant properties for their particular applications.

Medical devices are often made from engineering resins such as ULTEM, PEEK, RADEL, PPS and Polyolefins. For lower temperature applications, polymers are also used, like polycarbonates, ABS or polyamides (Nylon), for example. Metals such as titanium, nickel, aluminum and stainless steel are also common.

Adhesives ranging from epoxies to silicones, polyurethanes, polysulfides and other adhesive systems offer many assembly advantages and each works best in specific applications, with specific materials. Advanced adhesives can also replace mechanical fasteners for improved performance, reduced costs and greater resistance to sterilization processes.

However, today’s reusable medical devices have stringent performance and biocompatibility requirements that they must meet. Typically, medical device adhesives must be biocompatible, according to standards like the USP class VI rating or ISO 10993-5 rating.

In addition to meeting these standards, modern sterilization techniques employ steam, ethylene oxide (EtO), hydrogen peroxide gas plasma, glutaraldehyde, peracetic acid and irradiation. The application conditions dictate not only the product selection but also underline the importance of processing techniques.

“You have to pay close attention to the processes, from measuring, mixing and curing the epoxy, because everything has to be done in a certain way,” explained Rohit Ramnath, senior product engineer at Master Bond Inc.

“Conditions can vary from application to application. As an example, if we were looking at surgical equipment, you might need autoclaving resistance, so you’d be looking at temperatures of around 260° F (~ 130° C). The key is for the epoxy or adhesive to be able to handle those environments. Selecting material that has a high glass transition temperature (Tg) in that environment is important, but on the other end of the spectrum, you might have applications with exposure to different PH levels. In cases like these, typically adhesives must be cured at elevated temperatures to optimize the cross linking and achieve the highest possible bond strength.”

Designing and Pre-treating for Adhesives
Using advanced adhesives to meet structural and biocompatibility requirements can change how engineers approach the design of a medical device, depending on the requirements of the application.

“The more the surface area, the better,” said Venkat Nandivada, manager of technical support at Master Bond. “The aim is to keep the [bondable] surface area at a maximum.

”These changes in design also extend to the production process of the medical device, from pre-treatment to assembly. Low surface energy plastics such as polyethylene, polyolefin or even PTFE (Teflon) require surface pre-treatment, like a primer. For example, X21MED can be used for polyolefins to make the surface bondable.

But even plastics and metals that are friendlier to bonding still need the right surface preparation, as Nandivada explained:“For those, we typically recommend roughing and cleaning, usually with at least a 300µin finish. In many cases where that’s not possible, you can consider chemical etching and plasma treatment. Ultimately, substrates have to be clean and dry before you apply the adhesive and there shouldn’t be any contamination on the surface.

”Many adhesive chemistries, which offer good toughness characteristics, are often formulated to achieve a strong bond between dissimilar substrates.

Mixing and Dispensing Adhesives

From a broad perspective, adhesive chemistries come in either one-part or two-part mixes. Biocompatible solutions are available in both formats.A key difference between the chemistries comes down to curing.

“One-component systems usually have the advantage of an unlimited working life at room temperature and can cure much faster with heat, at temperatures like 250° F (120° C),” said Nandivada. “Two-part chemistries can cure at room temperature, or you can accelerate the cure by adding heat to temperatures such as 150 F (65° C). However, there are certain two-part chemistries that only cure with heat, at around 250° F (122° C).

”Two-component systems usually are packaged in static mixers compatible with a gun applicator, pre-mixed and frozen systems, FlexiPaks and cans; unlike one-component systems, which are usually packaged in syringes or cans. However, both systems can be dispensed through automated systems.

Syringes are typically used for one-component systems and are designed to be applied with either manual or air-actuated automatic dispensers. Two-component systems which require static mix heads, are ideal for semi-automated assembly lines, but this doesn’t have to present challenges for automated dispensation systems.

“There are cases where you might have a large volume application, wherein static mixers in combination with gun applicators can be used for mixing two-component systems, and that could be attached to a pneumatic system for large volume production,” said Ramnath. “Alternatively, you can use a semi-automated system where you manually pull the trigger from the gun and dispense the adhesive for smaller production runs.”

For particularly small production runs, manufacturers can use FlexiPaks , where you have two components separated by a rod, which can be removed. The flexipack can then be manually mixed by hand and dispensed on the device.

“Packaging plays a crucial roll to ease some manufacturing concerns,” Ramnath added.

Potting and Curing Adhesives

Encapsulation is another process that requires some research for best results. The potting process presents a significant issue when it’s time to cure your adhesive: the co-efficient of thermal expansion (CTE).

To eliminate CTE complications, Ramnath recommends using products filled with elements like aluminum oxide, which is a ceramic filler.

“It’s not going to match something like a metal housing, but it might come close and that is definitely useful if you were to look for a low CTE system,” he explained. “On the other hand, if you’re looking to handle thermal cycling stresses, there are flexible compounds and epoxy urethane-hybrid systems or even silicones, which are widely used as potting compounds.”

Potting can also be a tricky business: achieving high tack to keep the product in place, but getting a long enough pot life that small adjustments can be made before a hard set can be difficult.

Ramnath’s team at Master Bond also uses novel systems combining UV light and heat as a dual curing mechanism for sealing and encapsulating small electronic components. “You tack it with a UV lamp and you can then cure it or post-cure it in an oven, depending on the geometry of the device,” he said. “If you can get enough access to UV light, you can get enough tack where you don’t need external support for the heat curing portion. It’s quite popular because it is fast. However, the trade off is that the shrinkage would be higher than typical two component potting compounds. Master Bond is trying to develop new nano-filled systems, which might help reduce some of the shrinkage in such systems.”

Adhesive Bond Strength, Testing and Off-Gassing

The bond strength of adhesives used in medical devices is largely dependant on the substrate.

Most metals can achieve up to 4000psi in lap shear tests with the strongest adhesives. However, plastics usually achieve up to 1200-1500psi. “At that point, the substrate itself might fail,” Nandivada said.

“It all depends on the substrates, but we have experimented with different epoxy chemistries that are stronger than silicone or urethane types, and they are able to give really high bond strengths for different plastics and metals or ceramic-based systems.”

The Master Bond team tests the quality of their bonds with lap shear tests, but Nandivada also attests to the effectiveness of hardness tests.

“The most basic and fastest test is the hardness test, wherein you’re just curing a small amount of the adhesive by itself and checking the hardness after it cures, which can be used as a retain,” he explained. “If you’re talking about a rigid curing epoxy with a hardness greater than 80 on Shore D, if it’s curing like a silicone or if its very soft or tacky than something went wrong in the way it was measured, mixed or cured, so that is a red flag you can catch before it goes into assembly.”

Like all products made with plastics and industrial grade adhesives, medical devices will have a period of off-gassing, in which harmful chemicals will be released from the product as gases – think of that “new car” smell, for example.

Off-gassing can be an important issue when working with epoxies and silicones, the latter of which off-gasses similarly to polyurethanes, Ramnath explained. “In these kinds of scenarios, leaning towards epoxies are the best bet, because they will probably give you the least amount of off-gassing levels versus the other chemistries available.”

Adhesives for Medical Devices

Medical device manufacturers need to plan ahead and work with their suppliers to achieve the right chemical compositions for their adhesives, both for general use and intense sterilization. It’s best to approach industrial adhesive companies like Master Bond as early as possible – even before the design phase – to know what can or can’t be done and to guarantee best outcomes.

“We’re trying to guide manufacturers as to what adhesives can be used and with what substrates and so on,” Nandivada said.

“A good example is, an engineer might call with a design that involves the use of plastics like polyolefins and Teflon. If it’s that early, they may have the option to change the plastic and so we tell them that if they go with something like a fluoropolymer, there might be multiple steps involved in the process. They can go back and see which plastics they can use and come back to us with different options, so we can recommend the friendliest ones. That’s the most important thing, because choosing the right substrates is important and, of course, depending on what their handling and processing requirements are, we can guide them accordingly. It depends on the sterilization procedure that they’re planning on using as well.”

Original Source

Innovative Solutions and New Facilities Widen Use of Automotive Adhesives

According to DesignNews:

Automotive adhesives present one of the best solutions to adhere components in different parts of an automotive vehicle. From bonding materials in electric motors to keeping components in circuit boards together, the application of automotive adhesives is increasing day by day. Moreover, manufacturers of adhesives are installing new facilities to serve the local automotive manufacturers and raise their overall market share. Two new facilities by DuPont and PPG have opened in China and Morocco.

As demand for automotive adhesives increases for the production of new vehicles, there is a surge in need from automotive repair shops. These adhesives provide a better solution to use with mechanical fasteners such as screws and welds. Moreover, they present safer and more economical options as compared to other solutions, letting workers in repair shops enjoy a more comfortable environment thanks to acoustic performance management. According to the report published by Allied Market Research, the global automotive adhesives market is expected to reach $5.45 billion by 2023.

With design innovations in the automotive sector, there are new challenges emerging in bonding various components and ensuring the efficiency of vehicles. To address these challenges, there is a need for innovative bonding technology. Electric motors are getting smaller in size than before. The vital applications in motors, such as joining shafts and rotors, magnets, shafts, and stators, need strong bonding technologies.

The reduction in motor sizes to improve efficiency mandates stringent manufacturing tolerances. Conventional methods such as bandaging or clamping have reached their limits and the need for magnet bonding adhesives increased. These adhesives support stringent manufacturing tolerances, provide improved resistance, and prevent contact corrosion. Moreover, they reduce overall noise and provide an excellent acoustic environment.

Along with joining the parts in electric motors, the circuit boards on the advanced cars need their parts to stick together for the seamless functioning of automotive vehicles. Circuit boards are also getting more compact in size than before. Manufacturers need a strong solution for encapsulation, joining, and sealing of electronic components.

Moreover, materials need to offer efficient thermal management. Adhesives play a crucial role in the heat and stress distribution in automotive applications. Additionally, touchscreen displays are making their way into car infotainment systems and other applications. These displays need transparent adhesives for improving the image quality and enhancing stability.

As manufacturers have been trying to make their vehicles lightweight, they demand adhesive tapes to replace the existing mechanical fixtures and eliminate concerns related to dispending techniques. Batteries generate voltage and heat, so passengers in cars need to be kept safe from all of these issues. Double-sided tapes can reduce heat and voltage issues and ensure passenger safety. There are adhesive materials that can bear the temperature up to 150°C. In addition to all of these applications, mechanical fasteners can be replaced with adhesives in vehicles.

A surge in demand for automotive adhesives led one of the leading players in the adhesives industry to install a new facility. The company made an investment and broke the ground. DuPont invested $30 million in the new manufacturing plant in China to produce adhesive materials to address the increase in demand for automotive adhesives. This plant will provide quality, state-of-the-art processes, and enhanced capabilities for adhesive applications in the automotive industry. This plant is expected to open in 2023 and offer advanced adhesive technology solutions.

The bonding adhesives for assembly and sealing of batteries along with adhesives for the body structure of vehicles will be manufactured in the facility. These adhesives will also ensure battery bonding during the crash. Tina Wu, the Global Vice President at Advanced Solutions for DuPont Mobility & Materials, outlined that this new facility will produce world-class adhesive materials for supporting the automotive customers making the transition to electric or hybrid vehicles.

The trend of opening new facilities continues as another company takes the step to provide adhesive solutions to local manufacturers of vehicles. PPG will open up a new facility in Tangier, Morocco. This country is one of the largest vehicle-producing countries in the African region. As vehicle production volume is estimated to increase considerably in the coming years, more production facilities will open up and the demand for adhesives will rise.

PPG assessed the local production needs of adhesive technology for manufacturers and decided to support the goals of automotive players regarding electrification, sustainability, light weight, and reduction in noise. The company will collaborate with its automobile clients and address their needs by developing technical solutions.

Original Source

High Temperature Adhesives: 6 Things You Should Know

According to AZO Materials:

HT adhesives’ heat-withstanding properties make them an ideal solution for transportation, technology, aerospace, and energy applications. Their capacity to perform under temperatures as high as 300 °C means that polymer HT adhesives are also suitable for use in space-bound satellites.

HT adhesives are classified as either one component (1K) or two (2K) components. 2K adhesives are common (particularly those based on epoxy resins) and are typically manufactured using a dianhydride thermal curing agent.

Cured adhesives are highly heat resistant due to the combination of a dianhydride, an epoxy resin, and the heat necessary for curing. These adhesives also weigh considerably less than mechanical fasteners such as nuts and bolts, distributing joining forces uniformly across substrates and ensuring efficiency in the joint design.

This article explores six key factors that make HT adhesives unique.

  1. High-Temperature Adhesives are not Available at Big Box Stores.
    HT adhesives are generally only available from business-to-business providers. Big box stores offer retail products including Krazy Glue, Elmer’s Glue, and 5-Minute Epoxy, but fast-drying, ambient-cure adhesives such as these are only designed for the home consumer market. This market places value on ease-of-use, but these products are not robust enough for use in demanding industrial settings that require more heat-resistant alternatives.

HT adhesives’ sophisticated chemistry means that they require a great deal more care in handling than ambient-cure adhesives, with personnel often requiring specific training in substrate preparation and surface cleaning both prior to and during application.

  1. High-Temperature Adhesives are Found in Many Familiar Applications, Despite Their Specialist Nature.
    While the design of HT adhesives may be challenging, these adhesives are vitally important to many industrial, commercial, and manufacturing applications. HT adhesives are employed in a wide range of electronic devices, including watches, phones, televisions, and computers, with specific applications ranging from semiconductors, sensors, and circuit boards to glass display screens.

HT adhesives are also essential to the development of transportation, including cars, boats, motorcycles, trucks, and most recently, e-mobility.

HT adhesives are also commonplace throughout the aerospace industry, with application areas including rockets, missiles, satellites, planes, and drones.

HT adhesives can be designed to incorporate additional features through proper formulating. Their ability to be either electrically insulative or conductive and their extreme temperature resistance make these adhesives essential for use in motors, batteries, and a variety of electrical components.

HT adhesives are also widely used in the energy sector, for example, binding the components of photovoltaic cells – a central component of solar panels.

  1. Ambient-Cured Adhesives are not Designed for Use at High Temperatures.

General-purpose adhesives do not perform well at high temperatures because their chemistry is only designed to cure at ambient temperatures – they will lose their strength and fail to hold the adhesive joint as service temperature increases.

HT adhesives are designed differently, however. Curing HT adhesives with heat causes them to reach a high level of chemical crosslink density, affording them high-temperature performance. This is often denoted by their glass-transition temperature.

  1. High-Temperature Adhesives Have the Potential to be Surprisingly Durable.
    HT adhesives’ high chemical crosslink density makes them suitable for even the most challenging applications and conditions. As well as retaining their strength while being exposed to extreme service temperatures, HT adhesives are also able to resist chemical degradation from long-term exposure to environmental factors such as oxygen, heat, corrosive chemicals, water or moisture in the air.

When appropriately designed and cured, HT adhesives are able to withstand these aggressive environments due to their excellent thermo-oxidative stability (TOS). They are also highly resistant to chemical attack or hydrolysis.

Through careful customization of the HT adhesives’ specific formulation, designers can ensure they have adequate strength, durability and stiffness for their intended application.

  1. High-Temperature Adhesives are Versatile.
    HT adhesives are extremely versatile, not least because of their ability to be either electrical conductors or insulators. HT adhesives can be formulated to conduct electricity, allowing for sensitive and durable interconnections when employed in printed circuit boards (PCB).

In contrast, flexible, copper-clad laminates (FCCLs) used in smartphones require layers of electrical circuitry to be kept separate. HT adhesives can be designed to provide electrical insulation in these applications and in both of these examples, HT adhesives are able to withstand exposure to electrical voltage.

The same principle applies to heat management, particularly in smartphones and computers, where limiting internal heat build-up is essential. Thermally conductive adhesives can help dissipate warmth to air or the device’s external surfaces, facilitating uninterrupted operation and extending the lifespan of these always-on devices.

In instances where heat must be prevented from reaching a specific area of the adhesive assembly, the use of a thermally insulative adhesive can effectively block heat flow while tolerating the high heat itself.

  1. Ad-Hoc Remedies are not Suitable Substitutes for High-Temperature Adhesives.
    Properly engineered 2K HT adhesives are formulated using carefully chosen raw materials in exact proportions; for example, a combination of an epoxy resin and dianhydride curing agent. The effectiveness of each HT adhesive will also depend upon a proper combination of curing time and temperature.

Formulators that are not sufficiently experienced in HT adhesive chemistries may underestimate the amount of detail required in the design of such products. While a product may appear to perform well initially, the bond’s endurance cannot be confirmed without adequate stress testing.

Formulators are often tempted to add new ingredients into a known formulation, but this approach often results in avoidable complexities and a suboptimal solution. A more optimal approach would be to start from scratch, selecting the most appropriate materials for the adhesive application in question.

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Industries Use Many Types of Adhesives, Aerosols, Coatings, and Lubricants

According to Digital Journal:

Industries worldwide rely on adhesives, aerosols, coatings, and lubricants to make their products. Each of these products has a specific use and purpose that helps industry workers complete their tasks quickly and safely. While some of these products may appear similar, each has unique properties that make it suitable for certain applications. Below is a closer look at how industries use adhesives, aerosols, coatings, and lubricants to do their work.


Industries worldwide have increasingly relied on adhesives to do their work. For instance, automobile manufacturers use adhesives when producing car parts, engineering firms employ adhesives when creating structural components, and electrical goods manufacturers depend on adhesives for component assembly. These materials offer better product performance and assembly efficiency due to superior bonding strength and resistance to solvents.

From specialized removal solvents for medical devices to high-heat applications like fireplace glass closures, specialized adhesives are available from sources such as https://www.cir.net/ to aid industries in working with confidence and efficiency.


Aerosol products allow users to apply liquids or powders quickly and easily with minimal mess. They are often used in automotive repair shops and manufacturing plants to deliver lubricants or cleaning agents in an easy-to-use format. Some aerosol products also contain solvents that can be used for industrial degreasing applications or rust removal.

For instance, the California Industrial Rubber Co. uses aerosols to keep products free of contaminants during production. Businesses that depend on precision tinting trust the aerosolization process’s accuracy. Further, aerosols are popular for in-home improvements and construction tasks, such as creating a secure seal around cracks or holes.


Many industries rely on coatings to do their work. Coating technologies enhance performance, improve longevity and increase the efficiency of a wide range of products. Examples include preventing corrosion, quality electrical insulation, and superior adhesion. In addition, coating technologies provide an effective barrier between components to minimize wear, enable efficient cleaning processes, and protect parts from harsh outdoor environments.

By leveraging these coating techniques, industries will ensure they’re producing high-quality goods while saving time and money in the long run. Sites like https://www.cir.net/contact-us/ provide excellent resources for exploring which coating processes are right for their industry or application.


Lubricants provide several important functions within the industry, including reducing friction between moving parts and increasing efficiency while decreasing wear and tear on machinery components. Lubricants protect against rust by forming a protective barrier around metal components, preventing oxidation from occurring due to moisture contact.

Additionally, lubricants reduce noise levels created from machinery operation by providing additional cushioning between parts during operation, reducing sound vibration levels compared to dry-running components without lube applied.

Adhesives, aerosols, coatings, and lubricants have specific uses in various industries worldwide due to their unique properties that enable them to perform tasks quickly and effectively with minimal mess or hassle involved in the process. Each product provides distinct advantages, depending on the application it is used for, so understanding its properties before using it is key to success when working with these materials.

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